Visualizing Vascular Volumes

Cerebral vascular images obtained through angiography are used by neurosurgeons for diagnosis, surgical planning and intra-operative guidance. The intricate branching of the vessels and furcations, however, make the task of understanding the spatial three-dimensional layout of these mages challenging. In this paper, we present empirical studies on the effect of different perceptual cues (fog, pseudo-chromadepth, kinetic depth, and depicting edges) both individually and in combination on the depth perception of cerebral vascular volumes and compare these to the cue of stereopsis. Two experiments with novices and one experiment with experts were performed. The results with novices showed that the pseudo-chromadepth and fog cues were stronger cues than that of stereopsis. Furthermore, the addition of the stereopsis cue to the other cues did not improve relative depth perception in cerebral vascular volumes. In contrast to novices, the experts also performed well with the edge cue. In terms of both novice and expert subjects, pseudo-chromadepth and fog allow for the best relative depth perception, although experts unlike novices also performed well with the edge cue. By using such cues to improve depth perception of cerebral vasculature we may improve diagnosis, surgical planning, and intra-operative guidance.


  1.  Marta Kersten-Oertel, S. J. S. Chen, D. Louis Collins. An Evaluation of Depth Enhancing Perceptual Cues for Vascular Volume Visualization in Neurosurgery. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph. March, 2014.
  2.  M. Kersten-Oertel, S. J. S. Chen, D. L. Collins. “A Comparison of Depth Enhancing Perceptual Cues for Vessel Visualization in Neurosurgery.” CARS, June 27–30, 2012.